The Constituent Assembly of India 

26 Jan, the day which marks India’s transition from an independent nation towards becoming a democratic republic.

The task of framing the Constitution was entrusted upon the Constituent Assembly. The formation of Constituent Assembly is as interesting as the framing of the Constitution. Read on to know more about the Constituent Assembly of India.

History of the Constituent Assembly

A conference in Delhi in February  1923 attended by the members of the Central and Provincial Legislatures outlined the essential elements of a constitution placing India on equal footing with the self-governing Dominions of the British empire.

The adoption of the famous Motilal Nehru resolution in 1924 and 1925 was a historic event because Central Legislature had, for the first time showed it’s support for the demand of Constitution.

On 17 May 1927, at the Bombay session of the Congress, Motilal Nehru had moved a resolution calling upon the Congress Working Committee to frame constitution for India. (Later modified by Jawaharlal Nehru to become famous as the Nehru Report)

In 1934 M.N. Roy proposed the idea for an Constituent Assembly. It became an official demand of Congress in 1935. (Later accepted in August Offer)

The failure of the Simon Commision and the Round Table Conference led to the enactment of Government of India act 1935.

April 1936- In Lucknow session the Congress adopted a resolution to refuse any constitution made by foreign author.

19 November 1939 – Gandhi ji wrote an article entitled “The Only Way” in the Harijan. He expressed the view that “only the Constituent Assembly alone can produce the constitution indigenous to the country and truly and fully representing the will of the people.”

8 August 1940, August Offer’s announcement by Viceroy Lord Linlithgow included giving full weight to minority opinions and allowing Indians to draft their own constitution.

After Cripps Mission, no steps were taken for solution of the Indian Constitutional problems untill war in Europe came to an end in May, 1945.

19 September, 1945 Lord Wavell affirmed His Majesty’s Government’s intention to convene a constitution-making body “as soon as possible”.

Following the acceptance of Plan of 3 June, the members of the Muslim League Party from the Indian Dominion also took their seats in the Assembly.

9 December, 1946 the Constituent Assembly duly opened at eleven in the morning.

The objectives Resolution was finally adopted by the Assembly on 22 January 1947. It gave the guiding principles and the philosphy that was to penetrate the tasks of Constitution making. It later took the form of the Preamble to the Constitution.
By 28 April, 1947 the representatives of some Indian States had already entered the Assembly. In due course  the remaining states also entered the Assembly.

After the independence of the country, on 15 August 1947, the Constituent Assembly truly became free from the fetters of the Cabinet Mission plan to become an independent sovereign body which could abolish or alter any law.

It was disbanded on 24 January, 1950 in its last session just 2 days before the enforcement of the Constitution of India.
It was succeded by the Parliament of India. 


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